Bitcoin Mining FAQ

What is your Bitcoin Maturity Score?

How many of the 25 steps in the bitcoin rabbit hole have you mastered? Be honest. Count how many and divide your score by 2.5.
Your Score: <5: learner / weak hands 5-7: hodler 8-9: mature 10: orange pilled
Post your result below.
The Bitcoin Journey: 1. That (log) price chart! 🧐 2. Digital scarce? 🤔 3. Satochi 4. Blockchain 5. Alts 6. Mining, halvings, diff adjustment 7. How do I get it? 8. Wallets, keys, seeds, exchanges 9. Crypto Twitter 10. Fees, hashrate, mempool, txs 11. Money, inflation, central banks 12. Stocks, S&P500, 13. Charts, TA, RSI, MA’s, triangles, patterns 🤓 14. Keynes, Austrian economics 15. Bull/bear market, trading, win/lose 16. Network effects & adoption 17. Gold, Silver, real estate 18. Full node, electrum pvt server 19. Evangelize / orange pilled 💊 20. All-in / auto-dca 21. Immaculate conception 22. NGU, game theory 23. Cosmic renaissance 24. Opsec, multisig 25. Maximalism
Let me know your score & what’s missing from your journey. Also accepting suggestions for better results categories/ descriptions.
submitted by mbrookson to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Advertising for Escorts post backpage

This is general advice and my opinions They are based on many years of experience. ... and to be CLEAR, I am in no way affiliated with any of the sites running today or mentioned here. I don't make ANY money from them... I could care less if you take the advice or shit all over it. This is not an advertisement for any one site... It is my opinions based on my experiences in this industry. I have made a LOT of money in the industry, and made a lot of other people a lot of money. There are good and bad things about every site out there, some I recommend here, others I will shit on, but I make nothing, own nothing, am not affiliated with any of them.
I have often been asked a LOT of questions by people looking for advertising and website help. I decided this was the best way to answer all the questions and help the community.
I hope you can learn something from this that helps you as you advertise or even better keeps you safe..
I worked for backpage for a long time, I helped start the bitcoin payment side of the site, I also helped start one of the backpage replacements. I have consulted on 2 other clone site startups, and to top it all off.. I owned a escort agency on the east coast from 2003 to 2011.
I owned my agency with 2 partners, I kinda fell into it. They needed computer help, I was a computer and marketing guy.
SO through all of that I am pretty sure I know a LOT about advertising for sex workers and the industry in general.
For Escorts and sexworkers things are very different in today’s post backpage.com and SESTA/FOSTA world. These changes and new laws are having serious effects on advertising adult services.
Here are a list of things to consider: Many of us remember Escorts.com, and Craigslist. Those were really the only places a SWr needed advertise. A simple $5 ad on Craiglsist could make an advertisers phone ring for days. A single ad on escorts.com could fill a schedule for weeks. Then Eros got big, it became as good if not better than escorts.com quickly, most often attracting the most quality clients.
Our Agency's used all 3, escorts., eros. and CL. At the time backpage was a shit site we didn't bother with... there were a FEW other sites we listed links to our own websites on, like southerngfe.com or openadultdirectory.com and a few others... more for SEO than anything else... they didn't bring much.. CL was all we needed. ECCIE was not big at all in our region then, so we never really used them.
Then it all started to change… CL took down the Adult services section. Escorts.com was raided and shuttered.
Backpage became king. I remember people paying just .25 cents to post an ad for a week on BP, then just days after CL closed it was $3? I had started working for Village Voice by then as a consultant, and was there when CL closed...
I got calls from my partners... usually by 1pm we had booked a few calls in each city (we were in 3) and had taken several dozen calls asking prices... we had booked ZERO that day and taken less than 5 calls... ALL from our website and google searches... our CL ads had not made phones ring once... they kept testing the phones... they all worked.
Then word came through from my office at BP that CL had pulled the plug... they put a big "CENSORED" label over the adult services tab... a few days later it was gone.
After the smoke cleared, there was only a few places you really needed to be on... cityguidex.com, eros.com, ECCIE (in certain regions) and backpage. That was it.
THere were a few other sites... and they were more regional... this is 2010/2011 I am talking about...
The only place a escort REALLY needed to post an ad was backpage… if another site popped up, the rule of thumb was simple… if no other SW’s are posting there… don’t bother… its not worth it.
Now lets be honest.. there are advertisers that could make a very nice living and book a lot of calls from just backpage... and there are the ones that would never could never... These were advertisers that had their own sites, charged upwards of 500/hr and did the fly me to you type stuff...
very few advertisers doing 150h/h calls off backpage have websites... we all know what I am talking about if you have been around at all.
During this time for the most part , Agency's in most citys started going out of business...
this was for a few reasons... 1. the yellow pages DIED! Smart phones KILLED the yellow pages. NO ONE USES A PHONE BOOK ANYMORE!! It cost a min of $10k up front to put even a small ad in the yellow pages... the agency's that could and did had ruled the escort world since the 80's... if you were a sexworker you worked for an agency because you couldn't get calls otherwise...(generally speaking)
suddenly CL and other sites like it made it so ANYone with a cell phone could run their own agency, or even better, go "independent"
And the indys and the independents and the internet sites like CL and backpage killed the agency's.
Clients looked at the math like this... lets say an agency charged $200/hr... the girl was usually getting a 50/50 split, so she took 100. They would then "charge" a tip of an avg of $100... so the girl got 200, the agency 100.. and the guy was out 300... but that same girl could post an ad saying 175/hr with NO upsell... and although yea... she made 25 less... she would book 10 times the calls and not have to split shit... guys wanted to deal direct to save and get more "bang" for their buck.. (pardon the pun)
So the internet was suddenly swamped with independents... at about the same time CL was king and then died... it was a crazy time... suddenly all these independents need a place to advertise, because its back to the agency's (pimps in a lot of cases) if they cant get calls... very few were gonna start their own websites, and if they did... how do they drive traffic? Backpage filled the void. ECCIE grew as did a few other sites
Again, I was working with them by now... and it was retarded. "Craigslist alternative" was one of the top google searched terms in the WORLD in sept 2010 when CL closed... think about that.
Of course BP starts charging more... and more... and more. They offered more features.. charging for all of them... and now it was a crazier time... all the other sites are either crap or being shut down. Eros was super expensive, and wanted your DL licence and more...
SO BP was king! But we all remember how that went... and come April of 2018.. BP is gone, and then the real shitshow started.
Bedpage.com, Onebackapge.com, Ibackpage.com Ebackpage.com backpage.cl the site I helped start with the backpagecredits.com guys was yesbackpage.com, then skipthegames.com cityguidex.com slixa.com tryst.link there was some gator site out of Australia, afterdarkads.com, eros.com had a knock off.. DOZENS of sites and I cant remember how many others have popped up and died in the past year... its been insane. I consulted on afterdarkads.com for payment systems, and they are doing great. Others are dying. ECCIE is doing better than ever
And ALL of the rules you thought you knew about advertising are gone.
Since the demise of backpage, there are literally dozens of sites popping up all jockeying to be the next backpage. The truth is… it will never happen. Some will have more success than others, some will fold, some will remain… but the new reality is there are now be dozens of places to advertise. I helped the girl making verified vixens... she has already shut down for a few months because she is underfunded and cant market the site right. (she says she will be back... it was a GREAT site)
The rule of thumb was that if you saw a site that you could advertise on, and there was no one else in your city/region... dont bother. ESPECIALLY if you had to pay...
So now, when you find a new site, and there is just a few ads you figure are fake there… should you ignore it and move on?
NO! advertising today is a different animal. An advertiser needs to have as many ads up in as many places as possible… and most importantly, needs to think and act like a client.
We here in the industry knew an hour after backpage closed… we were searching for alternatives immediately. There are clients out there that look for an escort maybe 1 time a year on vacation, or the guy that found his regular SW’r on backpage 2 years ago… and now is looking for a new one… they are searching for “backpage alternative” or “backpage replacement” (according to google analytics those are the TOP search terms related to sex work and backpage since April 2018) they are searching craiglslist personals replacement, or "new backpage" ...
You need to be on the sites that come up in those results, EVEN IF THERE IS NO ONE ELSE SMART ENOUGH TO POST AN AD THERE!!! The clients are searching using those terms…and dozens of others, and they are browsing the links they find… and they are not finding you! Why is that? You are not thinking like a client… you found bedpage… saw there was a ton of ads… and figured that if everyone else is posting there… I should as well. Bedpage used a bot to crawl backpage in the weeks before it closed, and copy/pasted the majority of ads it found to bedpage… MANY advertisers report getting calls and finding their ads posted on bedpage… and they did not create an account or post. MOST of the ads you are PAYING to compete with are fake... clients know it.. they are moving on from those sites FAST.
Sites like bedpage use to be having lots of success… they had a LOT of posts, and word got around to advertisers fast… BUT THE CLIENTS DIDN’T GET THE WORD! Yes, dedicated sex mongers that search for escorts daily know… and the guys that spend time on the boards and in forums know.. but the MAJORITY of clients are the guys that MIGHT call one or 2 times a year… they have never heard of usasexguide.nl or the otherboards.com… they are doing something simple… typing in backpage… finding its gone… then going to google, and typing “backpage alternative”.
And here is the next issue, Bedpage, ebackpage, ibackpage, yesbackpage… they all have a similar problem, they attract the WORST customers. The calls and texts looking for a $50 blow and go all come from sites like them. The guys that DO crawl through the dozens and dozens of fake ads end up just blasting texts to every phone they find (even tho you said no texts in the ad) 3 am msgs that say "hey" or even worse.. "blow me in my car for 50$" after demanding pics to "prove" you are real...
Advertisers today need to get on as many sites as they can. Get on all of them... ESPECIALLY the ones with hardly any ads. The unfortunate byproduct will be you will get those shitty messages.. part of the price you must pay for being in this industry...
Here is why: 1. Branding... Most of these clients are searching on dozens of sites for an escort... if they see you on afterdarkads.com, AND on tryst, AND then on eros., then AGAIN when they kick back to afterdarkads.com, AND then AGAIN when they find slixa.com ... and THEN they FINALLY decide to book.. was it really the ad on slixa that really did it? Or the fact they saw you everyplace and it helped him know you are real, not a fake ad? Was it the ease of finding your ad on a site like afterdarkads.com because they only had to sort through 5 or 6 ads? What was it that made him book? Do you REALLY think having just ONE ad on bedpage, because that's where everyone posts is the best idea? It was because he saw you over and over he was BRANDED and eventually booked.
Branding is this, what do you clean your ears with? NO, not q-tips... its a cotton swab, you have been branded. WHat do you blow your nose with? NO, not kleenex... its a tissue... you are branded. Whats "The best part of wake-ing up.......? its WHAT in your cup... yea.. its coffee.. but you just said Folgers... BRANDING... get in front of ALL the clients as often as possible... BRAND them to think of you when they think of an escort.
The MAJORITY of clients are searching for an escort or hire escorts just a few times a year... they have never heard of all these sites the way we have... a few years ago 1 ad on one site was all you needed... now escorts need 30 ads on 10 sites. Its the way it is.
  1. Simple odds... there are 20+ new sites online... if you are on just 3 of them.. what are your odds that perfect client looking for a girl/guy just like you finds you? Be on all 20 and your odds are much better. There are plenty of clients seeking a sexworker or escort that are only finding escort sites like afterdarkads.com or slixa.com , etc right now for the first time... and in most cities there are just 1 or 2 ads... the bigger cities a few more... if you posted a free ad on there last week.. that you didn't even need bump or pay to feature... he WILL find you... BUT, if you are not there... he will end up moving on, maybe even searching a dozen other sites with barley any posts... maybe give up, search for an agency... go to a strip club book your competition.. who knows. What I DO know is that every time you post an ad on another site... you increase your odds dramatically that you are found. REMEMBER, these clients don't know all the sites... who knows what site they will end up on. And if you are NOT on the ones they find.. there is 1000% chance they call you.
A great way to booking more is to get a website. There are a lot of VERY inexpensive ways to post one.. many advertisers cant or don't have the resources or ability's... be very careful with the services promising escort websites for money.
I am happy to walk you through some easy free steps that can get you on the right path, I will also build a simple free site, just cover the cost, The hosting I recommend will cost you about $10/month, the domain registration and privacy will be about $25 a year, for under $50 I will put a basic site online for you , and show you how to modify it and post to it form your phone. I want nothing for it... I am happy to help anyone in this industry. just PM me. Once you have one.. .LIST YOUR ESCORT WEBSITE ON ALL THE ESCORT SITES!
Another thing to beware of, MANY reports claim that bedpage, aka ebackpage, aka, ibackpage, aka, onebackpage, aka icracker aka yesbackpage (all the same few guys in India and Bangladesh) have all been known to of given access to advertiser accounts to law enforcement resulting in several arrests. Escorts in NY, TX, and Co all report the same thing, when they were arrested, LE had access to their ad account, showing IP’s they posted from (leading one agency to the actual incall location they also posted ads from) payment methods and more. Be CAREFUL with what you post... use a VPN, do NOT use any payment method that can be connected to you, Tryst has a secure system it looks like and you can use btc or gift cards. Most of the other sites accepting credit/debit cards are at risk... if you are paying with a CC, GET A GIFT CARD like vanilla visa and pay cash for it... afterdarkads.com uses a payment site called adacredits.com and allows payment via many ways that hide your identity like gift cards, Bedpage does something similar but I worry its out of india... but do NOT use your personal amazon acct to buy an amazon card to buy credits from any escort advertisement site. Don't use your CC to buy a best buy card or target card to get an ad on bedpage. . If a site is asking for you to use a debit credit card, or worse upload an ID as proof of anything, you are taking a HUGE risk. eventually a lot of these sites are gonna get raided or closed. or hacked... ( I see rumors yesbackpage just got hacked by one of the owner siddiqs little jerkoff programmers thiefs... lol) whatever info they have stored is all sitting there waiting to be exploited. BE CAREFUL
Use a VPN... ALWAYS. If you cant, get a burner smart phone from Walmart through straight talk.. DO NOT sign into your personal FB on that phone, or your reg email... you want that phone and everything on it to NEVER have any attachment to who you are. pay cash for it all and to reup monthly. INSTALL A VPN if you can. Ask for help here on how to do it.. your safety and freedom depend on this.
Its not just the gov you are hiding from... its clients that have tech backgrounds. I will promise you.. there are VERY few advertisers out there, that if I wanted to, I could get your real name, address, phone, birth-date, and MUCH more. There are THOUSANDS of people out there like me... Laugh if you want but its true. At least I am a decent guy, I don't see sexworkers myself, not that I find anything wrong with it at all.. I am safe, you dont need worry about me, But we all know there are PLENTY of weirdos out there that will stalk you, harass you, and then there are the ones that want to hurt you. Yea, the gov will use your information to arrest you or fuck with you... but those scumbags are killers that will rape you and stick you in a dumpster... BE CAREFUL. BE SAFE. BE SMART.
YOU NEED TO BE ADVERTISING A LOT AND OFTEN!!! Those days of 1 ad producing tons of results are OVER… unless backpage returns… you need to be posting a LOT… it is the new world we live in!! On MANY sites! tryst.link is a top result and is working hard to bring the traffic, they seem to care about advertisers. slixa is a great site but not a lot of results. you know the deal with most of the older backpage clones like bedpage. skip the games is REALLY solid. As I said I helped the girls that started afterdarkads.com, they like tryst care, are sexworkers themselves, and verify advertisers... you are not competing to post against fake ads on afterdarkads. They are doing a great job. Cityxguide is solid for the most part I can see, I hear that on the west coast they are killing it. There were a few guys from BP that went to work for them, I hear good things... You need to be on ALL of them and posting a LOT!! post 1 ad per day on EVERY single site that has daily posting EVEN IF YOU JUST POSTED THE ONLY AD YESTERDAY!!!! on sites like tryst with a profile, at a minimum 1 profile, its smart to have a second with dif pics and numbers... pics hiding a face, diff description... in one describe yourself as a sexy cute fun playful thing.. in the other describe yourself as a dominant sex machine... As sexworkers the best bet is to be a chameleon and adapt yourself to what the client is looking to pay for...
HAVE A SCREENING PROCESS!!! Most high end advertisers with their own websites have extensive screening processes... go find them, read their requirements... what will work for you? Mimic them.
Advertising after backpage is not as easy as it once was… it takes work… it takes INVESTING in yourself. EVERY dollar you spend advertising is an investment. Not enough money in your pocket? INVEST MORE!
I hope you get something that helps you from this. It is all my opinions based on many years in this industry and seeing a lot. I was very successful advertising my own agency and learned a lot. I am happy to answer any questions I can. PM or ask away here! Again PLEASE, be careful and be safe!
submitted by jennersteve2 to afterdarkads_com [link] [comments]

Frequently Asked Questions and Information Thread

This FAQ and information thread serves to inform both new and existing users about common Bitcoin topics that readers coming to this Bitcoin subreddit may have. This is a living and breathing document, which will change over time. If you have suggestions on how to change it, please comment below or message the mods.
What is /btc?
The /btc reddit community was originally created as a community to discuss bitcoin. It quickly gained momentum in August 2015 when the bitcoin block size debate heightened. On the legacy /bitcoin subreddit it was discovered that moderators were heavily censoring discussions that were not inline with their own opinions.
Once realized, the subreddit subscribers began to openly question the censorship which led to thousands of redditors being banned from the /bitcoin subreddit. A large number of redditors switched to other subreddits such as /bitcoin_uncensored and /btc. For a run-down on the history of censorship, please read A (brief and incomplete) history of censorship in /bitcoin by John Blocke and /Bitcoin Censorship, Revisted by John Blocke. As yet another example, /bitcoin censored 5,683 posts and comments just in the month of September 2017 alone. This shows the sheer magnitude of censorship that is happening, which continues to this day. Read a synopsis of /bitcoin to get the full story and a complete understanding of why people are so upset with /bitcoin's censorship. Further reading can be found here and here with a giant collection of information regarding these topics.
Why is censorship bad for Bitcoin?
As demonstrated above, censorship has become prevalent in almost all of the major Bitcoin communication channels. The impacts of censorship in Bitcoin are very real. "Censorship can really hinder a society if it is bad enough. Because media is such a large part of people’s lives today and it is the source of basically all information, if the information is not being given in full or truthfully then the society is left uneducated [...] Censorship is probably the number one way to lower people’s right to freedom of speech." By censoring certain topics and specific words, people in these Bitcoin communication channels are literally being brain washed into thinking a certain way, molding the reader in a way that they desire; this has a lasting impact especially on users who are new to Bitcoin. Censoring in Bitcoin is the direct opposite of what the spirit of Bitcoin is, and should be condemned anytime it occurs. Also, it's important to think critically and independently, and have an open mind.
Why do some groups attempt to discredit /btc?
This subreddit has become a place to discuss everything Bitcoin-related and even other cryptocurrencies at times when the topics are relevant to the overall ecosystem. Since this subreddit is one of the few places on Reddit where users will not be censored for their opinions and people are allowed to speak freely, truth is often said here without the fear of reprisal from moderators in the form of bans and censorship. Because of this freedom, people and groups who don't want you to hear the truth with do almost anything they can to try to stop you from speaking the truth and try to manipulate readers here. You can see many cited examples of cases where special interest groups have gone out of their way to attack this subreddit and attempt to disrupt and discredit it. See the examples here.
What is the goal of /btc?
This subreddit is a diverse community dedicated to the success of bitcoin. /btc honors the spirit and nature of Bitcoin being a place for open and free discussion about Bitcoin without the interference of moderators. Subscribers at anytime can look at and review the public moderator logs. This subreddit does have rules as mandated by reddit that we must follow plus a couple of rules of our own. Make sure to read the /btc wiki for more information and resources about this subreddit which includes information such as the benefits of Bitcoin, how to get started with Bitcoin, and more.
What is Bitcoin?
Bitcoin is a digital currency, also called a virtual currency, which can be transacted for a low-cost nearly instantly from anywhere in the world. Bitcoin also powers the blockchain, which is a public immutable and decentralized global ledger. Unlike traditional currencies such as dollars, bitcoins are issued and managed without the need for any central authority whatsoever. There is no government, company, or bank in charge of Bitcoin. As such, it is more resistant to wild inflation and corrupt banks. With Bitcoin, you can be your own bank. Read the Bitcoin whitepaper to further understand the schematics of how Bitcoin works.
What is Bitcoin Cash?
Bitcoin Cash (ticker symbol: BCH) is an updated version of Bitcoin which solves the scaling problems that have been plaguing Bitcoin Core (ticker symbol: BTC) for years. Bitcoin (BCH) is just a continuation of the Bitcoin project that allows for bigger blocks which will give way to more growth and adoption. You can read more about Bitcoin on BitcoinCash.org or read What is Bitcoin Cash for additional details.
How do I buy Bitcoin?
You can buy Bitcoin on an exchange or with a brokerage. If you're looking to buy, you can buy Bitcoin with your credit card to get started quickly and safely. There are several others places to buy Bitcoin too; please check the sidebar under brokers, exchanges, and trading for other go-to service providers to begin buying and trading Bitcoin. Make sure to do your homework first before choosing an exchange to ensure you are choosing the right one for you.
How do I store my Bitcoin securely?
After the initial step of buying your first Bitcoin, you will need a Bitcoin wallet to secure your Bitcoin. Knowing which Bitcoin wallet to choose is the second most important step in becoming a Bitcoin user. Since you are investing funds into Bitcoin, choosing the right Bitcoin wallet for you is a critical step that shouldn’t be taken lightly. Use this guide to help you choose the right wallet for you. Check the sidebar under Bitcoin wallets to get started and find a wallet that you can store your Bitcoin in.
Why is my transaction taking so long to process?
Bitcoin transactions typically confirm in ~10 minutes. A confirmation means that the Bitcoin transaction has been verified by the network through the process known as mining. Once a transaction is confirmed, it cannot be reversed or double spent. Transactions are included in blocks.
If you have sent out a Bitcoin transaction and it’s delayed, chances are the transaction fee you used wasn’t enough to out-compete others causing it to be backlogged. The transaction won’t confirm until it clears the backlog. This typically occurs when using the Bitcoin Core (BTC) blockchain due to poor central planning.
If you are using Bitcoin (BCH), you shouldn't encounter these problems as the block limits have been raised to accommodate a massive amount of volume freeing up space and lowering transaction costs.
Why does my transaction cost so much, I thought Bitcoin was supposed to be cheap?
As described above, transaction fees have spiked on the Bitcoin Core (BTC) blockchain mainly due to a limit on transaction space. This has created what is called a fee market, which has primarily been a premature artificially induced price increase on transaction fees due to the limited amount of block space available (supply vs. demand). The original plan was for fees to help secure the network when the block reward decreased and eventually stopped, but the plan was not to reach that point until some time in the future, around the year 2140. This original plan was restored with Bitcoin (BCH) where fees are typically less than a single penny per transaction.
What is the block size limit?
The original Bitcoin client didn’t have a block size cap, however was limited to 32MB due to the Bitcoin protocol message size constraint. However, in July 2010 Bitcoin’s creator Satoshi Nakamoto introduced a temporary 1MB limit as an anti-DDoS measure. The temporary measure from Satoshi Nakamoto was made clear three months later when Satoshi said the block size limit can be increased again by phasing it in when it’s needed (when the demand arises). When introducing Bitcoin on the cryptography mailing list in 2008, Satoshi said that scaling to Visa levels “would probably not seem like a big deal.”
What is the block size debate all about anyways?
The block size debate boils down to different sets of users who are trying to come to consensus on the best way to scale Bitcoin for growth and success. Scaling Bitcoin has actually been a topic of discussion since Bitcoin was first released in 2008; for example you can read how Satoshi Nakamoto was asked about scaling here and how he thought at the time it would be addressed. Fortunately Bitcoin has seen tremendous growth and by the year 2013, scaling Bitcoin had became a hot topic. For a run down on the history of scaling and how we got to where we are today, see the Block size limit debate history lesson post.
What is a hard fork?
A hard fork is when a block is broadcast under a new and different set of protocol rules which is accepted by nodes that have upgraded to support the new protocol. In this case, Bitcoin diverges from a single blockchain to two separate blockchains (a majority chain and a minority chain).
What is a soft fork?
A soft fork is when a block is broadcast under a new and different set of protocol rules, but the difference is that nodes don’t realize the rules have changed, and continue to accept blocks created by the newer nodes. Some argue that soft forks are bad because they trick old-unupdated nodes into believing transactions are valid, when they may not actually be valid. This can also be defined as coercion, as explained by Vitalik Buterin.
Doesn't it hurt decentralization if we increase the block size?
Some argue that by lifting the limit on transaction space, that the cost of validating transactions on individual nodes will increase to the point where people will not be able to run nodes individually, giving way to centralization. This is a false dilemma because at this time there is no proven metric to quantify decentralization; although it has been shown that the current level of decentralization will remain with or without a block size increase. It's a logical fallacy to believe that decentralization only exists when you have people all over the world running full nodes. The reality is that only people with the income to sustain running a full node (even at 1MB) will be doing it. So whether it's 1MB, 2MB, or 32MB, the costs of doing business is negligible for the people who can already do it. If the block size limit is removed, this will also allow for more users worldwide to use and transact introducing the likelihood of having more individual node operators. Decentralization is not a metric, it's a tool or direction. This is a good video describing the direction of how decentralization should look.
Additionally, the effects of increasing the block capacity beyond 1MB has been studied with results showing that up to 4MB is safe and will not hurt decentralization (Cornell paper, PDF). Other papers also show that no block size limit is safe (Peter Rizun, PDF). Lastly, through an informal survey among all top Bitcoin miners, many agreed that a block size increase between 2-4MB is acceptable.
What now?
Bitcoin is a fluid ever changing system. If you want to keep up with Bitcoin, we suggest that you subscribe to /btc and stay in the loop here, as well as other places to get a healthy dose of perspective from different sources. Also, check the sidebar for additional resources. Have more questions? Submit a post and ask your peers for help!
submitted by BitcoinXio to btc [link] [comments]

Kraken Customer Support Number +1 (855) 266-9652 ##@@

Kraken Customer Support Number +1 (855) 266-9652


Can US customers use Kraken?
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Kraken Customer Support Number +1 (855) 266-9652



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How good is Kraken?
It's fair to say that Kraken is an option well worth considering thanks to its excellent security features and low transaction fees. However, it's not the best option for beginners due to its more complex interface. Kraken Customer Support Number +1 (855) 266-9652





Can you use credit card on Kraken?
For all other fiat currencies (USD, EUR, GBP, JPY), Kraken does not currently accept cash, debit cards, credit cards, PayPal, or similar services. Important: Do not deposit cash directly to any of our bank accounts. Only follow the deposit instructions provided to you on your Kraken account.





Does Kraken have a wallet?
Kraken is not a wallet service. Kraken is an exchange service, not a wallet service. We provide clients the ability to deposit funds to our corporate wallet for safekeeping while the funds are being exchanged or used for trading, but we do not provide a personal wallet service. Kraken Customer Support Number +1 (855) 266-9652




How long does Kraken withdrawal take?
Action you have to take Takes up to 10 minutes. Internal checks are complete, withdrawal transaction is sent to payment gateway for processing. Takes up to 10 minutes. Withdrawal transaction has been broadcasted to the respective digital assets network and is waiting for a blockchain confirmation. Kraken Customer Support Number +1 (855) 266-9652
submitted by Pristine-Reveal to u/Pristine-Reveal [link] [comments]

I literally have tens of thousands of dollars in top-shelf hardware, looking to repurpose some before selling on eBay to build a NAS system, possibly a dedicated firewall device as well. o_O

Q1) What will you be doing with this PC? Be as specific as possible, and include specific games or programs you will be using.**

A1) This will be a dedicated NAS system for my home network. As such, I'm looking to have it:

- Host ##TB's of 720, 1080 & up resolution Movies and TV Shows I'm about to begin ripping from a MASSIVE DVD & Blueray collection I have.

- My kids are big on Minecraft. I understand it's possible to host your own "worlds" (or whatever they call the maps you can build) on your own "server". I think it would be pretty neat to offer them (& their friends - if can be done 'safely/securely') their own partition on one of my NAS HDD's.

- I also have accounts with a couple diff VPN companies... I understand it's possible (?) to sync said VPN's with a NAS, this might be a more relative topic on the next point/purpose...

- I'd like to be able to remotely link to this NAS for when I travel overseas and want to stream at my temp location from my house/this NAS.
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Q2) What is your maximum budget before rebates/shipping/taxes?**

* A2) Here's where I make matters more complicated than most others would... I've been an advocate for Bitcoin and crypto-currencies in general since 2013. I invested in a small mining outfit back in 2014 (strictly Bitcoin/ASIC's). One of my buddies is the President of a large-scale mining operation (foreign and domestic) and he convinced me to dabble in the GPU mining-space. I made my first hardware purchase in Q4, 2017 and launched a small-scale GPU-Farm in my house since then. I had the rigs mining up until Q3 of 2018 (not cost-efficient to keep on, especially living in SoFlo) and since then, the hardware's been collecting dust (& pissing off my family members since they lost access to 3X rooms in the house - I won't let anyone go near my gear). One of my New Years Resolutions for 2019 was to clear out the house of all my mining equipment so that's all about to go up on eBay. So "budget" is relative to whatever I "MUST" spend if I can't repurpose any of the parts I already have on hand for this build... (Anyone having something I "need" and is looking to barter for one of the items I'll list later on in here, LMK).
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Q3) When do you plan on building/buying the PC? Note: beyond a week or two from today means any build you receive will be out of date when you want to buy.**

A3) IMMEDIATELY! :)
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Q4) What, exactly, do you need included in the budget? (ToweOS/monitokeyboard/mouse/etc\)**

A4) Well I had a half-assed idea approximately 1 year ago that it might be wise to build a bunch of 'gaming rigs' to sell on eBay with my intended repurposed mining hardware so I went on a shopping spree for like 6 months. That said; I've got a plethora of various other components that aren't even unboxed yet. 90% of the items I've purchased for this additional project were items that were marked down via MIR (mail-in-rebates) & what-not...
AFAIK, there are only 3X items I absolutely do not have which I 'MUST' find. Those would be - 1) Motherboard which accepts "ECC RAM". 2) CPU for said MOBO. 3) Said "ECC RAM".\* 
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Q5) Which country (and state/province) will you be purchasing the parts in? If you're in US, do you have access to a Microcenter location?**

A5) I'm located in Southwest Florida. No Microcenter's here. Best Buy is pretty much my only option although I am a member of Newegg, Amazon & Costco if that makes any difference?
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Q6) If reusing any parts (including monitor(s)/keyboard/mouse/etc), what parts will you be reusing? Brands and models are appreciated.**

A6) In an attempt to better clean up this Q&A, I'm going to list the items I have on-hand at the end of this questionnaire in-case passers-by feel like this might be a TLDR.* (Scroll to the bottom & you'll see what I mean).
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Q7) Will you be overclocking? If yes, are you interested in overclocking right away, or down the line? CPU and/or GPU?**

A7) I don't think that's necessary for my intended purpose although - I'm not against it if that helps & FWIW, I'm pretty skilled @ this task already (it's not rocket science).
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Q8) Are there any specific features or items you want/need in the build? (ex: SSD, large amount of storage or a RAID setup, CUDA or OpenCL support, etc)**

A8) As stated in A4; ECC RAM is non-negotiable... RAID seems like a logical application here as well.

- This will predominantly be receiving commands from MacOS computers. I don't think that matters really but figured it couldn't hurt to let you guys know.\*

- I'd also be quite fond of implementing "PFSENSE" (or something of that caliber) applied to this system so I could give my Netgear Nighthawks less stress in that arena, plus my limited understanding of PFSENSE is that it's ability to act as a firewall runs circles around anything that comes with consumer-grade Wi-Fi routers (like my Nighthawks). Just the same, I'm open to building a second rig just for the firewall.\*

- Another desirable feature would be that it draws as little electricity from the wall as possible. (I'm EXTREMELY skilled in this arena. I have "Kill-A-Watts" to test/gauge on, as well as an intimate understanding of the differences between Silver, Gold, Platinum and Titanium rated PSU's. As well as having already measured each of the PSU's I have on-hand and taken note of the 'target TDP draw' ("Peak Power Efficiency Draw") each one offers when primed with X amount of GPU's when I used them for their original purpose.\*

- Last, but not least, sound (as in noise created from the rig). I'd like to prop this device up on my entertainment center in the living room. I've (almost) all of the top-shelf consumer grade products one could dream of regarding fans and other thermal-related artifacts.

- Almost forgot; this will be hosting to devices on the KODI platform (unless you guys have better alternative suggestions?)
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Q9) Do you have any specific case preferences (Size like ITX/microATX/mid-towefull-tower, styles, colors, window or not, LED lighting, etc), or a particular color theme preference for the components?**

A9) Definitely! Desired theme would be WHITE. If that doesn't work for whatever reason, black or gray would suffice. Regarding "Case Size". Nah, that's not too important although I don't foresee a mini-ITX build making sense if I'm going to be cramming double digit amounts of TB in the system, Internal HDD's sounds better than a bunch of externals plugged in all the USB ports.
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Q10) Do you need a copy of Windows included in the budget? If you do need one included, do you have a preference?**

A10) I don't know. If I do need a copy of Windows, I don't have one so that's something I'll have to consider I guess. I doubt that's a necessity though.
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**Extra info or particulars:*\*

AND NOW TO THE FUN-STUFF... Here's a list of everything (PARTS PARTS PARTS) I have on-hand and ready to deploy into the wild &/or negotiate a trade/barter with:

CASES -
Corsair Carbide Series Air 540 Arctic White (Model# Crypto-Currency-9011048-WW) - (Probably my top pick for this build).
Cooler Master HAF XB EVO (This is probably my top 1st or 2nd pick for this build, the thing is a monster!).
Cooler Master Elite 130 - Mini ITX - Black
Cooler Master MasterBox 5 MID-Tower - Black & White
Raidmax Sigma-TWS - ATX - White
MasterBox Lite 5 - ATX - Black w/ diff. Colored accent attachments (included with purchase)
NZXT S340 Elite Matte White Steel/Tempered Glass Edition
EVGA DG-76 Alpine White - Mid Tower w/ window
EVGA DG-73 Black - Mid Tower w/ window (I have like 3 of these)

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CPU's -
***7TH GEN OR BELOW INTEL's ("Code Name Class mentioned next to each one)**\*
Pentium G4400 (Skylake @54W TDP) - Intel ARK states is "ECC CAPABLE"
Celeron G3930 (Kaby Lake @ 51W TDP) - Intel ARK states is "ECC CAPABLE" :)
i5 6402P (Skylake @65W TDP) - Intel ARK states is "NOT ECC CAPABLE" :(
i5 6600k (Skylake @ 91W TDP) - Intel ARK states is "NOT ECC CAPABLE" :(
i7 6700 (Skylake @ 65W TDP) - Intel ARK states is "NOT ECC CAPABLE" :(
i7 7700k (Kaby Lake @ 95W TDP) - Intel ARK states is "NOT ECC CAPABLE" :(


***8TH GEN INTEL's **\*
i3-8350K (Coffee Lake @91W TDP) - Intel ARK states is "ECC FRIENDLY" :)
I5-8600K (Coffee Lake @95W TDP) - Intel ARK states is "NOT ECC CAPABLE" :(


***AMD RYZEN's **\*
Ryzen 3 2200G
Ryzen 5 1600
Ryzen 7 1700X

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MOTHERBOARDS -

***7TH GEN AND BELOW INTEL BASED MOBO'S - **\*
MSI Z170A-SLI
ASUS PRIME Z270-A
ASUS PRIME Z270-P
ASUS PRIME Z270-K
EVGA Z270 Stinger
GIGABYTE GA-Z270XP-SLI
MSI B150M ARCTIC
MSI B250M MICRO ATX (PRO OPT. BOOST EDITION)

***8TH GEN INTEL BASED MOBO'S - **\*
EVGA Z370 FTW
GIGABYTE Z370XP SLI (Rev. 1.0)
MSI Z370 SLI PLUS


***AMD RYZEN BASED MOBO'S - **\*
ASUS ROG STRIX B350-F GAMING
MSI B350 TOMAHAWK
MSI X370 GAMING PRO
ASROCK AB350M PRO4
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RAM -

Way too many to list, nothing but 4 & 8GB DDR4 sticks and unfortunately, none are ECC so it's not even worth mentioning/listing these unless someone reading this is willing to barter. At which time I'd be obliged to send an itemized list or see if I have what they're/you're specifically looking for.\*
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THERMAL APPLICATIONS/FANS -
JUST FANS -
BeQuiet -
Pure Wings 2 (80mm)
Pure Wings 2 (120mm)
Pure Wings 2 (140mm)
Silent Wings 3 PWM (120mm)

NOCTUA -
PoopBrown - NF-A20 PWM (200mm) Specifically for the BIG "CoolerMaster HAF XB EVO" Case
GREY - NF-P12 Redux - 1700RPM (120mm) PWM
Corsair -
Air Series AF120LED (120mm)

CPU COOLING SYSTEMS -
NOCTUA -
NT-HH 1.4ml Thermal Compound
NH-D15 6 Heatpipe system (this thing is the tits)

EVGA (Extremely crappy coding in the software here, I'm like 99.99% these will be problematic if I were to try and use in any OS outside of Windows, because they barely ever work in the intended Windows as it is).
CLC 240 (240mm Water-cooled system
CRYORIG -
Cryorig C7 Cu (Low-Profile Copper Edition*)

A few other oversized CPU cooling systems I forget off the top of my head but a CPU cooler is a CPU cooler after comparing to the previous 3 models I mentioned.
I almost exclusively am using these amazing "Innovation Cooling Graphite Thermal Pads" as an alternative to thermal paste for my CPU's. They're not cheap but they literally last forever.

NZXT - Sentry Mesh Fan Controller
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POWER SUPPLIES (PSU's) -
BeQuiet 550W Straight Power 11 (GOLD)

EVGA -
750P2 (750W, Platinum)
850P2 (850W, Platinum)
750T2 (750W, TITANIUM - yeah baby, yeah)

ROSEWILL -
Quark 750W Platinum
Quark 650W Platinum

SEASONIC -
Focus 750W Platinum
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STORAGE -
HGST Ultrastar 3TB - 64mb Cache - 7200RPM Sata III (3.5)
4X Samsung 860 EVO 500GB SSD's
2X Team Group L5 LITE 3D 2.5" SSD's 480GB
2X WD 10TB Essential EXT (I'm cool with shucking)
+ 6X various other external HDD's (from 4-8TB) - (Seagate, WD & G-Drives)
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Other accessories worth mentioning -
PCI-E to 4X USB hub-adapter (I have a dozen or so of these - might not be sufficient enough &/or needed but again, 'worth mentioning' in case I somehow ever run out of SATA & USB ports and have extra external USB HDD's. Although, I'm sure there would be better suited components if I get to that point that probably won't cost all that much).
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Needless to say, I have at least 1X of everything mentioned above. In most all cases, I have multiples of these items but obviously won't be needing 2X CPU's, Cases, etc...

Naturally, I have GPU's. Specifically;

At least 1X of every. Single. NVIDIA GTX 1070 TI (Yes, I have every variation of the 1070 ti made by MSI, EVGA and Zotac. The only brand I don't have is the Gigabyte line. My partners have terrible experience with those so I didn't even bother. I'm clearly not going to be needing a GPU for this build but again, I'm cool with discussing the idea of a barter if anyone reading this is in the market for one.

I also have some GTX 1080 TI's but those are already spoken for, sorry.

It's my understanding that select CPU's I have on this list are ECC Friendly and AFAIK, only 1 of my MOBO's claims to be ECC Friendly (The ASROCK AB350M PRO4), but for the life of me, I can't find any corresponding forums that confirm this and/or direct me to a listing where I can buy compatible RAM. Just the same, if I go w/ the ASROCK MOBO, that means I'd be using one of the Ryzens. Those are DEF. power hungry little buggers. Not a deal-breaker, just hoping to find something a little more conservative in terms of TDP.


In closing, I don't really need someone to hold my hand with the build part as much as figuring out which motherboard, CPU and RAM to get. Then I'm DEFINITELY going to need some guidance on what OS is best for my desired purpose. If building 2X Rigs makes sense, I'm totally open to that as well...
Rig 1 = EPIC NAS SYSTEM
Rig 2 = EPIC PFSENSE (or the like) DEDICATED FIREWALL

Oh, I almost forgot... The current routers I'm using are...
1X Netgear Nighthawk 6900P (Modem + Router)
1X Netgear Nighthawk X6S (AC 4000 I believe - Router dedicated towards my personal devices - no IoT &/or Guests allowed on this one)
1X TP-Link Archer C5 (Router). Total overkill after implementing the Nighthawks but this old beast somehow has the best range, plus it has 2X USB ports so for now, it's dedicated towards my IoT devices.
---- I also have a few other Wi-Fi routers (Apple Airport Extreme & some inferior Netgear's but I can only allocate so many WiFi Routers to so many WiFi channels w/out pissing off my neighbors) On that note, I have managed to convince my neighbors to let me in their house/WiFi configuration so we all have our hardware locked on specific, non-competing frequencies/channels so everyone's happy. :)


Please spare me the insults as I insulted myself throughout this entire venture. Part of why I did this was because when I was a kid, I used to fantasize about building a 'DREAM PC' but could never afford such. To compensate for this deficiency, I would actually print out the latest and greatest hardware components on a word document, print the lists up & tape to wall (for motivation). I was C++ certified at the age of 14 and built my first PC when I was 7. At the age of 15 I abandoned all hope in the sector and moved on to other aspirations. This entire ordeal was largely based off me finally fulfilling a childhood fantasy. On that note = mission accomplished. Now if I'm actually able to fulfill my desires on this post, I'm definitely going to feel less shitty about blowing so much money on all this stuff over the last couple years.

TIA for assisting in any way possible. Gotta love the internets!


THE END.
:)

EDIT/UPDATE (5 hours after OP) - My inbox is being inundated with various people asking for prices and other reasonable questions about my hardware being up for sale. Not to be redundant but rather to expound on my previous remarks about 'being interested in a bartetrade' with any of you here...

I did say I was going to sell my gear on eBay in the near future, I also said I wanted to trade/barter for anything relative to helping me accomplish my OP's mission(s). I'm not desperate for the $$$ but I'm also not one of those people that likes to rip other people off. That said; I value my time and money invested in this hardware and I'm only willing to unload it all once I've established I have ZERO need for any of it here in my home first. Hence my writing this lengthy thread in an attempt to repurpose at least a grand or two I've already spent.

One of the most commonly asked questions I anticipate receiving from interested bodies is going to be "How hard were you on your hardware?" Contrary to what anyone else would have probably done in my scenario which is say they were light on it whether they were or weren't, I documented my handling of the hardware, and have no problem sharing such documentation with verified, interested buyers (WHEN THE TIME COMES) to offer you guys peace of mind.

I have photo's and video's of the venture from A-Z. I am also obliged to provide (redacted) electricity bill statements where you can correlate my photo's (power draw on each rig), and also accurately deduct the excess power my house consumed with our other household appliances. Even taking into consideration how much (more) I spent in electricity from keeping my house at a constant, cool 70-72F year-round (via my Nest thermostat). Even without the rigs, I keep my AC @ 70 when I'm home and for the last 1.5-2 years, I just so happened to spend 85% of my time here at my house. When I would travel, I'd keep it at 72 for my wife & kids.
Additionally; I had each GPU 'custom' oveunderclocke'd (MSI Afterburner for all GPU's but the EVGA's).*
I doubt everyone reading this is aware so this is for those that don't.... EVGA had the brilliant idea of implementing what they call "ICX technology" in their latest NVIDIA GTX GPU's. The short(est) explanation of this "feature" goes as follows:

EVGA GPU's w/ "ICX 9 & above" have EXTRA HEAT/THERMAL SENSORS. Unlike every other GTX 1070 ti on the market, the one's with this feature actually have each of 2/2 on-board fans connected to individual thermal sensors. Which means - if you were to use the MSI Afterburner program on one of these EVGA's and create a custom fan curve for it, you'd only be able to get 1/2 of the fans to function the way intended. The other fan simply would not engage as the MSI Afterburner software wasn't designed/coded to recognize/ communicate with an added sensor (let alone sensor'S). This, in-turn, would likely result in whoever's using it the unintended way having a GPU defect on them within the first few months I'd imagine... Perhaps if they had the TDP power settings dumbed down as much as I did (60-63%), they might get a year or two out of it since it wouldn't run as near as hot, but I doubt any longer than that since cutting off 50% of the cooling system on one of these can't be ignored too long, surely capacitors would start to blow and who knows what else...
(Warning = RANT) Another interesting side-note about the EVGA's and their "Precision-X" OveUnderclocking software is that it's designed to only recognize 4X GPU's on a single system. For miners, that's just not cool. My favorite builds had 8X and for the motherboards that weren't capable of maintaining stable sessions on 8, I set up with 6X. Only my EVGA Rigs had 3 or 4X GPU's dedicated to a single motherboard. Furthermore, and as stated in an earlier paragraph, (& this is just my opinion) = EVGA SOFTWARE SUCKS! Precision X wasn't friendly with every motherboard/CPU I threw at it and their extension software for the CLC Close-Loop-Cooling/ CPU water-coolers simply didn't work on anything, even integrating into their own Precision-X software. The amount of time it took me to finally find compatible matches with that stuff was beyond maddening. (END RANT).
Which leads me to my other comments on the matter. That's what I had every single 1070 ti set at for TDP = 60-63%. Dropping the power load that much allowed me to bring down (on average) each 1070 ti to a constant 110-115W (mind you, this is only possible w/ "Titanium" rated PSU's, Platinum comes pretty damn close to the Titanium though) while mining Ethereum and was still able to maintain a bottom of 30 MH/s and a ceiling of 32 MH/s. Increasing the TDP to 80, 90, 100% or more only increased my hashrates (yields) negligibly, like 35-36 MH/s TOPS, which also meant each one was not only pulling 160-180W+ (Vs. the aforementioned 115'ish range), it also meant my rigs were creating a significantly greater amount of heat! Fortunately for the GPU's and my own personal habits, I live in South Florida where it's hot as balls typically, last winter was nothing like this one. Increasing my yields by 10-15% didn't justify increasing the heat production in my house by >30%, nor the added electricity costs from subjecting my AC handlers to that much of an extra work-load. For anyone reading this that doesn't know/understand what I'm talking about - after spending no less than 2-3 hours with each. and. every. one. I didn't play with the settings on just one and universally apply the settings to the rest. I found the 'prime' settings and documented them with a label-maker and notepad. Here's the math in a more transparent manner:

*** I NEVER LET MY GPU's BREACH 61C, EVER. Only my 8X GPU rigs saw 60-61 & it was the ones I had in the center of the build (naturally). I have REALLY high power fans (used on BTC ASIC MINERS) that were sucking air from those GPU's which was the only way I was able to obtain such stellar results while mining with them. **\*
Mining at "acceptable" heat temps (not acceptable to me, but most of the internet would disagree = 70C) and overclocking accordingly brings in X amount of yields per unit. =
'Tweaking' (underclocking) the GPU's to my parameters reduced my yield per unit from -10-15%, but it SAVED me well over 30-35% in direct electricity consumption, and an unknown amount of passive electricity consumption via creating approximately 20%+ less heat for my AC handler to combat.

I say all this extra stuff not just for anyone interested in mining with their GPU's, but really to answer (in-depth) the apparent questions you people are asking me in PM's. Something else that should help justify my claims of being so conservative should be the fact I only have/used "Platinum and Titanium" rated PSU's. Heat production, power efficiency and longevity of the hardware were ALWAYS my top priority.* . I truly thought Crypto would continue to gain and/or recover and bounce back faster than it did. If this project had maintained positive income for 12 months+, I'd have expanded one of our sites to also cater to GPU mining on a gnarly scale.

Once I have my NAS (& possibly 2nd rig for the firewall) successfully built, I'll be willing/able to entertain selling you guys some/all of the remaining hardware prior to launching on eBay. If there's something you're specifically looking for that I listed having, feel free to PM me with that/those specific item(s). Don't count on an immediate response but what you can count on is me honoring my word in offering whoever asks first right of refusal when the time comes for me to sell this stuff. Fortunately for me, PM's are time-stamped so that's how I'll gauge everyone's place in line. I hope this extra edit answers most of the questions you guys wanted to have answered and if not, sorry I guess. I'll do my best to bring light to anything I've missed out on after I realize whatever that error was/is. The only way anyone is getting first dibs on my hardware otherwise is if they either offer compelling insight into my original questions, or have something I need to trade w/.

THE END (Round#2)


submitted by Im-Ne-wHere to buildapcforme [link] [comments]

A technical dive into CTOR

Over the last several days I've been looking into detail at numerous aspects of the now infamous CTOR change to that is scheduled for the November hard fork. I'd like to offer a concrete overview of what exactly CTOR is, what the code looks like, how well it works, what the algorithms are, and outlook. If anyone finds the change to be mysterious or unclear, then hopefully this will help them out.
This document is placed into public domain.

What is TTOR? CTOR? AOR?

Currently in Bitcoin Cash, there are many possible ways to order the transactions in a block. There is only a partial ordering requirement in that transactions must be ordered causally -- if a transaction spends an output from another transaction in the same block, then the spending transaction must come after. This is known as the Topological Transaction Ordering Rule (TTOR) since it can be mathematically described as a topological ordering of the graph of transactions held inside the block.
The November 2018 hard fork will change to a Canonical Transaction Ordering Rule (CTOR). This CTOR will enforce that for a given set of transactions in a block, there is only one valid order (hence "canonical"). Any future blocks that deviate from this ordering rule will be deemed invalid. The specific canonical ordering that has been chosen for November is a dictionary ordering (lexicographic) based on the transaction ID. You can see an example of it in this testnet block (explorer here, provided this testnet is still alive). Note that the txids are all in dictionary order, except for the coinbase transaction which always comes first. The precise canonical ordering rule can be described as "coinbase first, then ascending lexicographic order based on txid".
(If you want to have your bitcoin node join this testnet, see the instructions here. Hopefully we can get a public faucet and ElectrumX server running soon, so light wallet users can play with the testnet too.)
Another ordering rule that has been suggested is removing restrictions on ordering (except that the coinbase must come first) -- this is known as the Any Ordering Rule (AOR). There are no serious proposals to switch to AOR but it will be important in the discussions below.

Two changes: removing the old order (TTOR->AOR), and installing a new order (AOR->CTOR)

The proposed November upgrade combines two changes in one step:
  1. Removing the old causal rule: now, a spending transaction can come before the output that it spends from the same block.
  2. Adding a new rule that fixes the ordering of all transactions in the block.
In this document I am going to distinguish these two steps (TTOR->AOR, AOR->CTOR) as I believe it helps to clarify the way different components are affected by the change.

Code changes in Bitcoin ABC

In Bitcoin ABC, several thousand lines of code have been changed from version 0.17.1 to version 0.18.1 (the current version at time of writing). The differences can be viewed here, on github. The vast majority of these changes appear to be various refactorings, code style changes, and so on. The relevant bits of code that deal with the November hard fork activation can be found by searching for "MagneticAnomaly"; the variable magneticanomalyactivationtime sets the time at which the new rules will activate.
The main changes relating to transaction ordering are found in the file src/validation.cpp:
There are other changes as well:

Algorithms

Serial block processing (one thread)

One of the most important steps in validating blocks is updating the unspent transaction outputs (UTXO) set. It is during this process that double spends are detected and invalidated.
The standard way to process a block in bitcoin is to loop through transactions one-by-one, removing spent outputs and then adding new outputs. This straightforward approach requires exact topological order and fails otherwise (therefore it automatically verifies TTOR). In pseudocode:
for tx in transactions: remove_utxos(tx.inputs) add_utxos(tx.outputs) 
Note that modern implementations do not apply these changes immediately, rather, the adds/removes are saved into a commit. After validation is completed, the commit is applied to the UTXO database in batch.
By breaking this into two loops, it becomes possible to update the UTXO set in a way that doesn't care about ordering. This is known as the outputs-then-inputs (OTI) algorithm.
for tx in transactions: add_utxos(tx.outputs) for tx in transactions: remove_utxos(tx.inputs) 
Benchmarks by Jonathan Toomim with Bitcoin ABC, and by myself with ElectrumX, show that the performance penalty of OTI's two loops (as opposed to the one loop version) is negligible.

Concurrent block processing

The UTXO updates actually form a significant fraction of the time needed for block processing. It would be helpful if they could be parallelized.
There are some concurrent algorithms for block validation that require quasi-topological order to function correctly. For example, multiple workers could process the standard loop shown above, starting at the beginning. A worker temporarily pauses if the utxo does not exist yet, since it's possible that another worker will soon create that utxo.
There are issues with such order-sensitive concurrent block processing algorithms:
In contrast, the OTI algorithm's loops are fully parallelizable: the worker threads can operate in an independent manner and touch transactions in any order. Until recently, OTI was thought to be unable to verify TTOR, so one reason to remove TTOR was that it would allow changing to parallel OTI. It turns out however that this is not true: Jonathan Toomim has shown that TTOR enforcement is easily added by recording new UTXOs' indices within-block, and then comparing indices during the remove phase.
In any case, it appears to me that any concurrent validation algorithm would need such additional code to verify that TTOR is being exactly respected; thus for concurrent validation TTOR is a hindrance at best.

Advanced parallel techniques

With Bitcoin Cash blocks scaling to large sizes, it may one day be necessary to scale onto advanced server architectures involving sharding. A lot of discussion has been made over this possibility, but really it is too early to start optimizing for sharding. I would note that at this scale, TTOR is not going to be helpful, and CTOR may or may not lead to performance optimizations.

Block propagation (graphene)

A major bottleneck that exists in Bitcoin Cash today is block propagation. During the stress test, it was noticed that the largest blocks (~20 MB) could take minutes to propagate across the network. This is a serious concern since propagation delays mean increased orphan rates, which in turn complicate the economics and incentives of mining.
'Graphene' is a set reconciliation technique using bloom filters and invertible bloom lookup tables. It drastically reduces the amount of bandwidth required to communicate a block. Unfortunately, the core graphene mechanism does not provide ordering information, and so if many orderings are possible then ordering information needs to be appended. For large blocks, this ordering information makes up the majority of the graphene message.
To reduce the size of ordering information while keeping TTOR, miners could optionally decide to order their transactions in a canonical ordering (Gavin's order, for example) and the graphene protocol could be hard coded so that this kind of special order is transmitted in one byte. This would add a significant technical burden on mining software (to create blocks in such a specific unusual order) as well as graphene (which must detect this order, and be able to reconstruct it). It is not clear to me whether it would be possible to efficiently parallelize sorting algortithms that reconstruct these orderings.
The adoption of CTOR gives an easy solution to all this: there is only one ordering, so no extra ordering information needs to be appended. The ordering is recovered with a comparison sort, which parallelizes better than a topological sort. This should simplify the graphene codebase and it removes the need to start considering supporting various optional ordering encodings.

Reversibility and technical debt

Can the change to CTOR be undone at a later time? Yes and no.
For block validators / block explorers that look over historical blocks, the removal of TTOR will permanently rule out usage of the standard serial processing algorithm. This is not really a problem (aside from the one-time annoyance), since OTI appears to be just as efficient in serial, and it parallelizes well.
For anything that deals with new blocks (like graphene, network protocol, block builders for mining, new block validation), it is not a problem to change the ordering at a later date (to AOR / TTOR or back to CTOR again, or something else). These changes would add no long term technical debt, since they only involve new blocks. For past-block validation it can be retroactively declared that old blocks (older than a few months) have no ordering requirement.

Summary and outlook

Taking a broader view, graphene is not the magic bullet for network propagation. Even with the CTOR-improved graphene, we might not see vastly better performance right away. There is also work needed in the network layer to simply move the messages faster between nodes. In the last stress test, we also saw limitations on mempool performance (tx acceptance and relaying). I hope both of these fronts see optimizations before the next stress test, so that a fresh set of bottlenecks can be revealed.
submitted by markblundeberg to btc [link] [comments]

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submitted by jay261170m to phuketiptv [link] [comments]

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submitted by jay261170m to phuketiptv [link] [comments]

The Astounding Incompetence, Negligence, and Dishonesty of the Bitcoin Unlimited Developers

On August 26, 2016 someone noticed that their Classic node had been forked off of the "Big Blocks Testnet" that Bitcoin Classic and Bitcoin Unlimited were running. Neither implementation was testing their consensus code on any other testnets; this was effectively the only testnet being used to test either codebase. The issue was due to a block on the testnet that was mined on July 30, almost a full month prior to anyone noticing the fork at all, which was in violation of the BIP109 specification that Classic miners were purportedly adhering to at the time. Gregory Maxwell observed:
That was a month ago, but it's only being noticed now. I guess this is demonstrating that you are releasing Bitcoin Classic without much testing and that almost no one else is either? :-/
The transaction in question doesn't look at all unusual, other than being large. It was, incidentally, mined by pool.bitcoin.com, which was signaling support for BIP109 in the same block it mined that BIP 109 violating transaction.
Later that day, Maxwell asked Roger Ver to clarify whether he was actually running Bitcoin Classic on the bitcoin.com mining pool, who dodged the question and responded with a vacuous reply that attempted to inexplicably change the subject to "censorship" instead.
Andrew Stone (the lead developer of Bitcoin Unlimited) voiced confusion about BIP109 and how Bitcoin Unlimited violated the specification for it (while falsely signaling support for it). He later argued that Bitcoin Unlimited didn't need to bother adhering to specifications that it signaled support for, and that doing so would violate the philosophy of the implementation. Peter Rizun shared this view. Neither developer was able to answer Maxwell's direct question about the violation of BIP109 §4/5, which had resulted in the consensus divergence (fork).
Despite Maxwell having provided a direct link to the transaction violating BIP109 that caused the chain split, and explaining in detail what the results of this were, later Andrew Stone said:
I haven't even bothered to find out the exact cause. We have had BUIP016 passed to adhere to strict BIP109 compatibility (at least in what we generate) by merging Classic code, but BIP109 is DOA -- so no-one bothered to do it.
I think that the only value to be had from this episode is to realise that consensus rules should be kept to an absolute, money-function-protecting minimum. If this was on mainnet, I'll be the Classic users would be unhappy to be forked onto a minority branch because of some arbitrary limit that is yet another thing would have needed to be fought over as machine performance improves but the limit stays the same.
Incredibly, when a confused user expressed disbelief regarding the fork, Andrew Stone responded:
Really? There was no classic fork? As i said i didnt bother to investigate. Can you give me a link to more info? Its important to combat this fud.
Of course, the proof of the fork (and the BIP109-violating block/transaction) had already been provided to Stone by Maxwell. Andrew Stone was willing to believe that the entire fork was imaginary, in the face of verifiable proof of the incident. He admits that he didn't investigate the subject at all, even though that was the only testnet that Unlimited could have possibly been performing any meaningful tests on at the time, and even though this fork forced Classic to abandon BIP109 entirely, leaving it vulnerable to the types of attacks that Gavin Andresen described in his Guided Tour of the 2mb Fork:
“Accurate sigop/sighash accounting and limits” is important, because without it, increasing the block size limit might be dangerous... It is set to 1.3 gigabytes, which is big enough so none of the blocks currently in the block chain would hit it, but small enough to make it impossible to create poison blocks that take minutes to validate.
As a result of this fork (which Stone was clueless enough to doubt had even happened), Bitcoin Classic and Bitcoin Unlimited were both left vulnerable to such attacks. Fascinatingly, this fact did not seem to bother the developers of Bitcoin Unlimited at all.
On November 17, 2016 Andrew Stone decided to post an article titled A Short Tour of Bitcoin Core wherein he claimed:
Bitcoin Unlimited is building the highest quality, most stable, Bitcoin client available. We have a strong commitment to quality and testing as you will see in the rest of this document.
The irony of this claim should soon become very apparent.
In the rest of the article, Stone wrote with venomous and overtly hostile rhetoric:
As we mine the garbage in the Bitcoin Core code together... I want you to realise that these issues are systemic to Core
He went on to describe what he believed to be multiple bugs that had gone unnoticed by the Core developers, and concluded his article with the following paragraph:
I hope when reading these issues, you will realise that the Bitcoin Unlimited team might actually be the most careful committers and testers, with a very broad and dedicated test infrastructure. And I hope that you will see these Bitcoin Core commits— bugs that are not tricky and esoteric, but simple issues that well known to average software engineers —and commits of “Very Ugly Hack” code that do not reflect the care required for an important financial network. I hope that you will realise that, contrary to statements from Adam Back and others, the Core team does not have unique skills and abilities that qualify them to administer this network.
As soon as the article was published, it was immediately and thoroughly debunked. The "bugs" didn't exist in the current Core codebase; some were results of how Andrew had "mucked with wallet code enough to break" it, and "many of issues were actually caused by changes they made to code they didn't understand", or had been fixed years ago in Core, and thus only affected obsolete clients (ironically including Bitcoin Unlimited itself).
As Gregory Maxwell said:
Perhaps the biggest and most concerning danger here isn't that they don't know what they're doing-- but that they don't know what they don't know... to the point where this is their best attempt at criticism.
Amusingly enough, in the "Let's Lose Some Money" section of the article, Stone disparages an unnamed developer for leaving poor comments in a portion of the code, unwittingly making fun of Satoshi himself in the process.
To summarize: Stone set out to criticize the Core developer team, and in the process revealed that he did not understand the codebase he was working on, had in fact personally introduced the majority of the bugs that he was criticizing, and was actually completely unable to identify any bugs that existed in current versions Core. Worst of all, even after receiving feedback on his article, he did not appear to comprehend (much less appreciate) any of these facts.
On January 27, 2017, Bitcoin Unlimited excitedly released v1.0 of their software, announcing:
The third official BU client release reflects our opinion that Bitcoin full-node software has reached a milestone of functionality, stability and scalability. Hence, completion of the alpha/beta phase throughout 2009-16 can be marked in our release version.
A mere 2 days later, on January 29, their code accidentally attempted to hard-fork the network. Despite there being a very clear and straightforward comment in Bitcoin Core explaining the space reservation for coinbase transactions in the code, Bitcoin Unlimited obliviously merged a bug into their client which resulted in an invalid block (23 bytes larger than 1MB) being mined by Roger Ver's Bitcoin.com mining pool on January 29, 2017, costing the pool a minimum of 13.2 bitcoins. A large portion of Bitcoin Unlimited nodes and miners (which naively accepted this block as valid) were temporarily banned from the network as a result, as well.
The code change in question revealed that the Bitcoin Unlimited developers were not only "commenting out and replacing code without understanding what it's for" as well as bypassing multiple safety-checks that should have prevented such issues from occurring, but that they were not performing any peer review or testing whatsoever of many of the code changes they were making. This particular bug was pushed directly to the master branch of Bitcoin Unlimited (by Andrew Stone), without any associated pull requests to handle the merge or any reviewers involved to double-check the update. This once again exposed the unprofessionalism and negligence of the development team and process of Bitcoin Unlimited, and in this case, irrefutably had a negative effect in the real world by costing Bitcoin.com thousands of dollars worth of coins.
In effect, this was the first public mainnet fork attempt by Bitcoin Unlimited. Unsurprisingly, the attempt failed, costing the would-be forkers real bitcoins as a result. It is possible that the costs of this bug are much larger than the lost rewards and fees from this block alone, as other Bitcoin Unlimited miners may have been expending hash power in the effort to mine slightly-oversized (invalid) blocks prior to this incident, inadvertently wasting resources in the doomed pursuit of invalid coins.
On March 14, 2017, a remote exploit vulnerability discovered in Bitcoin Unlimited crashed 75% of the BU nodes on the network in a matter of minutes.
In order to downplay the incident, Andrew Stone rapidly published an article which attempted to imply that the remote-exploit bug also affected Core nodes by claiming that:
approximately 5% of the “Satoshi” Bitcoin clients (Core, Unlimited, XT) temporarily dropped off of the network
In reddit comments, he lied even more explicitly, describing it as "a bug whose effects you can see as approximate 5% drop in Core node counts" as well as a "network-wide Bitcoin client failure". He went so far as to claim:
the Bitcoin Unlimited team found the issue, identified it as an attack and fixed the problem before the Core team chose to ignore it
The vulnerability in question was in thinblock.cpp, which has never been part of Bitcoin Core; in other words, this vulnerability only affected Bitcoin Classic and Bitcoin Unlimited nodes.
In the same Medium article, Andrew Stone appears to have doctored images to further deceive readers. In the reddit thread discussing this deception, Andrew Stone denied that he had maliciously edited the images in question, but when questioned in-depth on the subject, he resorted to citing his own doctored images as sources and refused to respond to further requests for clarification or replication steps.
Beyond that, the same incident report (and images) conspicuously omitted the fact that the alleged "5% drop" on the screenshotted (and photoshopped) node-graph was actually due to the node crawler having been rebooted, rather than any problems with Core nodes. This fact was plainly displayed on the 21 website that the graph originated from, but no mention of it was made in Stone's article or report, even after he was made aware of it and asked to revise or retract his deceptive statements.
There were actually 3 (fundamentally identical) Xthin-assert exploits that Unlimited developers unwittingly publicized during this episode, which caused problems for Bitcoin Classic, which was also vulnerable.
On top of all of the above, the vulnerable code in question had gone unnoticed for 10 months, and despite the Unlimited developers (including Andrew Stone) claiming to have (eventually) discovered the bug themselves, it later came out that this was another lie; an external security researcher had actually discovered it and disclosed it privately to them. This researcher provided the following quotes regarding Bitcoin Unlimited:
I am quite beside myself at how a project that aims to power a $20 billion network can make beginner’s mistakes like this.
I am rather dismayed at the poor level of code quality in Bitcoin Unlimited and I suspect there [is] a raft of other issues
The problem is, the bugs are so glaringly obvious that when fixing it, it will be easy to notice for anyone watching their development process,
it doesn’t help if the software project is not discreet about fixing critical issues like this.
In this case, the vulnerabilities are so glaringly obvious, it is clear no one has audited their code because these stick out like a sore thumb
In what appeared to be a desperate attempt to distract from the fundamental ineptitude that this vulnerability exposed, Bitcoin Unlimited supporters (including Andrew Stone himself) attempted to change the focus to a tweet that Peter Todd made about the vulnerability, blaming him for exposing it and prompting attackers to exploit it... but other Unlimited developers revealed that the attacks had actually begun well before Todd had tweeted about the vulnerability. This was pointed out many times, even by Todd himself, but Stone ignored these facts a week later, and shamelessly lied about the timeline in a propagandistic effort at distraction and misdirection.
submitted by sound8bits to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Please read our Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)

This FAQ thread serves to inform both new and existing users about common Bitcoin issues, complaints, and comments that readers coming to this Bitcoin subreddit may have. This is a living and breathing document, which will change over time. If you have suggestions on how to change it, please comment below or message the mods.
What is /btc?
Bitcoin is commonly abbreviated as BTC, hence the name. The /btc reddit community was originally created as a community to discuss bitcoin. It quickly gained momentum in August 2015 when the bitcoin block size debate heightened. On the legacy /bitcoin subreddit it was discovered that moderators were heavily censoring discussions that were not inline with their own opinions.
Once realized, the subreddit subscribers began to openly question the censorship which led to thousands of redditors being banned from the /bitcoin subreddit. A large number of redditors switched to other subreddits such as /bitcoin_uncensored and /btc. For a run-down on the history of censorship, please read A (brief and incomplete) history of censorship in /bitcoin by John Blocke and /Bitcoin Censorship, Revisted by John Blocke. Update October 2017: As yet another example, /bitcoin censored 5,683 posts and comments just in the month of September 2017 alone. This shows the sheer magnitude of censorship that is happening. Read a synopsis of /bitcoin to get the full story and a complete understanding of why people are so upset with /bitcoin's censorship.
Why is censorship bad for Bitcoin?
As demonstrated above, censorship has become prevalent in almost all of the major Bitcoin communication channels. The impacts of censorship in Bitcoin are very real. "Censorship can really hinder a society if it is bad enough. Because media is such a large part of people’s lives today and it is the source of basically all information, if the information is not being given in full or truthfully then the society is left uneducated [...] Censorship is probably the number one way to lower people’s right to freedom of speech." By censoring certain topics and specific words, people in these Bitcoin communication channels are literally being brain washed into thinking a certain way, molding the reader in a way that they desire; this has a lasting impact especially on users who are new to Bitcoin. Censoring in Bitcoin is the direct opposite of what the spirit of Bitcoin is, and should be condemned anytime it occurs. Also, it's important to think critically, and have an open mind.
What is the goal of /btc?
This subreddit is a diverse community dedicated to the success of bitcoin. /btc honors the spirit and nature of Bitcoin being a place for open and free discussion about Bitcoin without the interference of moderators. Subscribers at anytime can look at and review the public moderator logs. This subreddit does have rules as mandated by reddit that we must follow plus a couple of rules of our own. Make sure to read the /btc wiki for more information and resources about this subreddit which includes information such as the benefits of Bitcoin, how to get started with Bitcoin, and more.
What is Bitcoin?
Bitcoin is a digital currency, also called a virtual currency, which can be transacted for a low-cost nearly instantly from anywhere in the world. Bitcoin also powers the blockchain, which is a public immutable and decentralized global ledger. Unlike traditional currencies such as dollars, bitcoins are issued and managed without the need for any central authority whatsoever. There is no government, company, or bank in charge of bitcoin. As such, it is more resistant to wild inflation and corrupt banks. With bitcoin, you can be your own bank. Read the Bitcoin whitepaper to further understand the schematics of how Bitcoin works. You can download a Bitcoin client to start fully using Bitcoin today; note that it takes time to sync full clients, which can take anywhere from 7 hours to over 24 hours for the initial blockchain download depending on your hardware and bandwidth.
How do I buy Bitcoin?
You can buy Bitcoin on an exchange or with a brokerage. If you're looking to buy Bitcoin with your credit card you can simply visit this buy Bitcoin link to get started quickly and safely. There are several others places to buy Bitcoin too; please check the sidebar under brokers, exchanges, and trading for other go-to service providers to begin buying and trading Bitcoin. Make sure to do your homework first before choosing an exchange to ensure you are choosing the right one for you.
How do I store my Bitcoin securely?
After the initial step of buying your first Bitcoin, you will need a Bitcoin wallet to secure your bitcoin. Knowing which Bitcoin wallet to choose is the second most important step in becoming a Bitcoin user. Since you are investing funds into Bitcoin, choosing the right Bitcoin wallet for you is a critical step that shouldn’t be taken lightly. Use this guide to help you choose the right wallet for you. Check the sidebar under Bitcoin wallets to get started and find a wallet that you can store your Bitcoin in.
Why is my transaction taking so long to process?
Bitcoin transactions typically confirm in ~10 minutes. A confirmation means that the Bitcoin transaction has been verified by the network through the process known as mining. Once a transaction is confirmed, it cannot be reversed or double spent. Transactions are included in blocks.
Over the past year, the Bitcoin network has hit its maximum capacity of 1MB of available transaction space (block size limit) causing fees to rise and block confirmations to slow. If you have sent out a Bitcoin transaction and it’s delayed, chances are the fee you used wasn’t enough to out-compete others causing it to be backlogged. The transaction won’t confirm until it clears the backlog. To help with this as a temporary solution, you can check fee estimator services to help you figure out the right fee to pay or use a transaction accelerator service to help get an already broadcast transaction mined and confirmed.
Why does my transaction cost so much, I thought Bitcoin was supposed to be cheap?
As described above, transaction fees have spiked in the past year mainly due to a limit on transaction space. This has created what is called a fee market, which has primarily been a premature artificially induced price increase on transaction fees due to the limited amount of block space available (supply vs. demand). The original plan was for fees to help secure the network when the block reward decreased and eventually stopped, but the plan was not to reach that point until some time in the future, around the year 2140.
What is the block size limit?
The original Bitcoin client didn’t have a block size cap, however was limited to 32MB due to the Bitcoin protocol message size constraint. However, in July 2010 Bitcoin’s creator Satoshi Nakamoto introduced a temporary 1MB limit as an anti-DDoS measure. The temporary measure from Satoshi Nakamoto was made clear three months later when Satoshi said the block size limit can be increased again by phasing it in when it’s needed (when the demand arises). When introducing Bitcoin on the cryptography mailing list in 2008, Satoshi said that scaling to Visa levels “would probably not seem like a big deal.”
How can the block size be increased to accommodate more transactions?
There have been many discussions and proposals to increase the block size over the past couple of years, so far without any success. The most recent way introduced by a group of developers has been through a new client called Bitcoin Unlimited (BU), which removes the temporary limit like the original client and lets the free market decide what block size is best, allowing for on-chain scaling. The BU plan is to accomplish this via a hard fork. Another recent alternative has been Segregated Witness (SegWit), which only allows a limited amount more of transactions through a signature optimization, removing signature data from conventional transactions and placing it into a new space, called the transaction witness. SegWit has been deployed as a soft fork (but not active), although it could also be implemented as a hard fork.
What is a hard fork?
A hard fork is when a block is broadcast under a new and different set of protocol rules which is accepted by nodes that have upgraded to support the new protocol. In this case, Bitcoin diverges from a single blockchain to two separate blockchains (a majority chain and a minority chain). Some argue that having two chains is problematic, but that is only the case if you believe that the minority chain will survive and have more market value than the majority chain. Read more about hard forks in our Hard Fork mega thread.
What is a soft fork?
A soft fork is when a block is broadcast under a new and different set of protocol rules, but the difference is that nodes don’t realize the rules have changed, and continue to accept blocks created by the newer nodes. Some argue that soft forks are bad because they trick old-unupdated nodes into believing transactions are valid, when they may not actually be valid.
Doesn't it hurt decentralization if we increase the block size?
Some argue that by lifting the limit on transaction space, that the cost of validating transactions on individual nodes will increase to the point where people will not be able to run nodes individually, giving way to centralization. This is a false dilemma because at this time there is no proven metric to quantify decentralization; although it has been shown that the current level of decentralization will remain with or without a block size increase. It's a logical fallacy to believe that decentralization only exists when you have people all over the world running full nodes. The reality is that only people with the income to sustain running a full node (even at 1MB) will be doing it. So whether it's 1MB, 2MB, or 4MB, the costs of doing business is negligible for the people who can already do it. If the block size limit is removed, this will also allow for more users worldwide to use and transact introducing the likelihood of having more individual node operators. Decentralization is not a metric, it's a direction. This is a good video describing the direction of how decentralization should look.
Additionally, the effects of increasing the block capacity beyond 1MB has been studied with results showing that up to 4MB is safe and will not hurt decentralization (Cornell paper, PDF). Other papers also show that no block size limit is safe (Peter Rizun, PDF). Lastly, through an informal survey among all top Bitcoin miners, many agreed that a block size increase between 2-4MB is acceptable.
What is the block size debate all about anyways?
The block size debate boils down to different sets of users who are trying to come to consensus on the best way to scale Bitcoin for growth and success. Scaling Bitcoin has actually been a topic of discussion since Bitcoin was first released in 2008; for example you can read how Satoshi Nakamoto was asked about scaling here and how he thought at the time it would be addressed. Fortunately Bitcoin has seen tremendous growth and by the year 2013, scaling Bitcoin had became a hot topic. For a run down on the history of scaling and how we got to where we are today, see the Block size limit debate history lesson post.
What is Bitcoin Cash?
This is a question we are seeing a lot of since Bitcoin hard forked on August 1, 2017. Bitcoin Cash (symbol: BCH) is just a newer version of Bitcoin that split in August in attempt to solve the scaling problems that have been plaguing Bitcoin for years. At it's core Bitcoin Cash is just a continuation of the Bitcoin project that allows for bigger blocks which will give way to more growth and adoption. You can read more about Bitcoin Cash in this mega thread or learn the difference between legacy Bitcoin and Bitcoin Cash.
What is SegWit2x?
Called SegWit2X, the upgrade plan calls for a very specific fork (or a change to Bitcoin's rules), one that would make certain rules valid that weren't valid before. Specifically, Segwit2x would change the size of the blocks passed regularly around the network and stored in the blockchain from 1 MB to 2 MB to allow for more onchain capacity and growth.
The SegWit2X announcement explains the upgrade to 2MB was first discussed at the ‘Hong Kong Roundtable Agreement’, and had further solidified at the ‘New York Agreement’ (NYA) this year at the Consensus conference. Both agreements involved implementing SegWit first and a block size increase from 1MB to 2MB later.
"The November 2017 upgrade to 2MB blocks is a hard-fork, but necessary changes are trivial to perform," explains the Segwit2x working group’s announcement. The targeted hard fork date is set to trigger on block height 494784, which is estimated to happen on or around November 16, 2017.
Please read the SegWit2X readiness checklist for more details and information about compatible clients.
What now?
Bitcoin is a fluid ever changing system. If you want to keep up with Bitcoin, we suggest that you subscribe to /btc and stay in the loop here, as well as other places to get a healthy dose of perspective from different sources. Also, check the sidebar for additional resources. Have more questions? Submit a post and ask your peers for help!
submitted by BitcoinXio to btc [link] [comments]

Anti-FUD: The BIP148 enforcing client - a walkthrough.

There seems to be a lot of FUD going around surrounding https://github.com/uasf/bitcoin/tree/0.14 <--that little guy. I'm a programmer, so let me walk you through what, exactly, is changed, and how you can verify what changes for yourself.
So, to get started, click on the 'Compare' button just below the green button that says 'clone or download'. link
This shows you every single change that has been merged between bitcoin core, in the 0.14 branch (the branch that was used to create the 0.14 Core client many of us use) and this repository's version of the 0.14 client, which requires any blocks after August 1, 2017 to support Segwit.
So, let's go through the page, top to bottom, and explain what it is telling you.
19 commits 4 files changed 3 commit comments 3 contributors 
That tells you that 19 times someone has changed something in the code base, in total, 4 files were changed by those 19 commits, 3 commit comments were made (think of these as replies to a thread on reddit), and 3 people total have made contributions to the code differences represented below.
Below that is a list of what commits were made on what day. You can click on the second column (BIP148 / Update client name to Satoshi BIP148 / etc) to see what changes were made in that version (compared to the version before it) specifically.
Scroll down until you hit
Showing with 19 additions and 5 deletions. 
This is where the 'fun' (programming) begins.

src/clientversion.cpp

-std::string FormatSubVersion(const std::string& name, int nClientVersion, const std::vector& comments) +std::string FormatSubVersion(const std::string& name, int nClientVersion, const std::vector& comments, const bool fBaseNameOnly) 
Red lines, which always start with a minus sign, means that line was removed from the file. Green lines, which always start with a + sign, mean that line was added. "But the line wasn't removed, just some stuff was added to the end!" Correct! This is a 'diff-ism'. Diff being the name of the program used to show differences between a file. Diff doesn't highlight just the part of the line that changed, it highlights the entire line, and leaves it to you to spot the changes in the line.
From the above, we can see a parameter was added to the end of the line. "But what does the line do!" Well, what you're looking at is a function declaration. What is a function? Well, imagine you wanted to build a robot to make sandwiches for you. You could make the sandwich yourself, but it's easier if an automated system does it for you. The function is like the robot; you put a specific set of tasks into the robot's programming, give it a specific set of inputs (bread, knife, meat/cheese/spreads/etc) and it returns the resultant sandwich. The way to read the declaration is this:
std::string FormatSubVersion(const std::string& name, int nClientVersion, const std::vector& comments, const bool fBaseNameOnly) 
  1. std::string The first argument is the return type of the function. In this case, a C++ string.
  2. FormatSubVersion This is the name of the function
  3. (const std::string& name, the first parameter of the function, since it is unchanged from Core, and unmodified by other changes in the file, I will not bother explaining what it does.
  4. int nClientVersion, Second parameter to the function. Same thing, original, unmodified, skipping.
  5. const std::vector& comments, Parameter 3, unchanged, skipping.
  6. , const bool fBaseNameOnly) Parameter 4, 'const bool' means two things: 1) we cannot change the value of this variable in the code. 2) it's a 'bool' type, which is short for boolean. It an either be true or false, those are the only values it can ever have. What does it do? Let's keep reading.

std::ostringstream ss; 
That's important for later, make note of it.
if (!fBaseNameOnly) ss << "UASF-Segwit:0.2(BIP148)/"; 
The above is the change uses the newly minted parameter 4 to add a bit of text into the output stream. Specifically, the string "UASF-Segwit:0.2(BIP148)/" is tacked on to whatever is ahead of it in the output stream. The net result of this change is that clients using this code will report their client version as '/Santoshi:0.14.0/UASF-Segwit:0.2(BIP148)/' instead of the standard value of '/Santoshi:0.14.0/'.
File complete! Next file.

src/clientversion.h

Within C or C++ programming, you have the concept of 'code files' (ending in .c or .cpp) and 'header files' (ending in .h). Strictly speaking, any code can be in either file and the compiler will figure it out (assuming you give it enough information to do so). However, programming conventions exist. Since I assume the readers of this post are (largely) not programmers, I won't bore you. It's a convention used for sanity only, and it is a convention followed by the bitcoin source code. In general, program code that 'does stuff' goes in .c and .cpp files, and the code needed to tell the compiler (compiler = the thing that converts these text files into a program) where to 'find stuff' goes into .h files.
-std::string FormatSubVersion(const std::string& name, int nClientVersion, const std::vector& comments); +std::string FormatSubVersion(const std::string& name, int nClientVersion, const std::vector& comments, bool fBaseNameOnly = false); 
Well, because this is the exact same function call we just talked about in the previous section, I'll skip going through the parameters one by one, and instead focus only on the change: , bool fBaseNameOnly = false).
"WAIT! It has 'const' before bool in the .cpp file! That's bad right!?" No. The compiler will see const in the .cpp file and mandate the variable be const.
"WAIT! Here it says '= false' and in the .cpp file it doesn't!" Again, not a problem. Remember how I said some code goes in .c/.cpp files, and some in .h files? Well, this is a case where which file contains what code actually does matter. Basically, you can't set a default value for a parameter inside a .c/.cpp file. You can only do that in a .h file. So...that's 100% correct. Here is the souce code for a quick little program to see this behavior:
--test.cpp--
#include "test.h" #include  #include  int main() { function(); } int function(const bool tmp) { tmp = !tmp; } 
---test.h---
int function(bool test = false); 
--If you tried to compile this, you'd get--
g++ test.cpp test.cpp: In function ‘int function(bool)’: test.cpp:12:6: error: assignment of read-only parameter ‘tmp’ tmp = !tmp; 
In this case, 'read only' means 'was declared const'.
Remember how a 4th parameter was added in the code above? Well, you have to tell the compiler to expect that parameter, which you do here, in the header file. That line of code tells the compiler to expect the 4th parameter. It also sets the default value of the parameter, should the caller not specify it, to be false.
Thus, you can call this function two ways:
  1. FormatSubVersion("Test", 99900, std::vector())
  2. FormatSubVersion("Test", 99900, std::vector(), true)
Using method 1 would result in a User Agent string of '/Test:99900/UASF-Segwit:0.2(BIP148)/', because the program uses the default value of 'false' and so it sticks in the bit about BIP148 support. Using method 2 would result in '/Test:99900/' "Wait, wait, how did you figure that out?" Look here, scroll to the bottom (line 88) and that is the FormatSubVersion function we went over above. All you do is built the string in steps as you read the code:
  1. Line 90: ""
  2. Line 91: "/"
  3. Line 92: "/Test:99900" {the 'Test' comes from the 'name' parameter, parameter 1. The : is statically coded (<< ":" <<) and the 99900 comes from nClientVersion, parameter 2}
  4. Line 93: From the function call, we see that parameter 3 is initialized 'std::vector()', this is an empty vector. If the vector had anything in it, it would look like this: std::vector('a')
  5. (because the if statement in line 93 fails, we go to: ) Line 101: "/Test:99900/"
  6. Line 102: (are we doing a version with or without the 4th parameter set to true?)
  7. Line 103: (if parameter 4 is false, line becomes "/Test:99900/UASF-Segwit:0.2(BIP148)/"
  8. Line 104: Convert the 'ss' variable to a standard C++ string and return the that string to whatever asked this function to be run.
SO, in total, this function literally just creates a string. Much like the robot-sandwich example, you give the function a client name, version, and list of comments and it builds you a string containing those things.

src/test/util_tests.cpp

This file is part of the automated testing for bitcoind/bitcoin-qt. When you compile the software, you'd typically run 'make check' before installing the software, to ensure that your changes didn't break anything and that your compile didn't go wrong. With the effort I've put into explaining the change to FormatSubVersion in the past two section, I believe you can now see that the only change made to this test is to ensure that the newly added code performs as expected.
That said, there is a 'defect' in this code. He should not have removed the 3 existing tests. He should have added 3 new tests. That way he'd have both 'positive' and 'negative' test case coverage. That said, it isn't something to fret about.

src/validation.cpp

All right, finally, the big file where all the cool shit happens!
+ // BIP148 mandatory segwit signalling. + if (pindex->GetMedianTimePast() >= 1501545600 && // Tue 1 Aug 2017 00:00:00 UTC + pindex->GetMedianTimePast() <= 1510704000 && // Wed 15 Nov 2017 00:00:00 UTC + !IsWitnessEnabled(pindex->pprev, chainparams.GetConsensus())) + { + // versionbits topbit and segwit flag must be set. + if ((pindex->nVersion & VERSIONBITS_TOP_MASK) != VERSIONBITS_TOP_BITS || + (pindex->nVersion & VersionBitsMask(chainparams.GetConsensus(), Consensus::DEPLOYMENT_SEGWIT)) == 0) { + return state.DoS(0, error("ConnectBlock(): relayed block must signal for segwit, please upgrade"), REJECT_INVALID, "bad-no-segwit"); + } + } + 
The entire section is newly added. Anything it does will be 'in addition to' whatever is already done. Let's go through the change line by line:
"Ok, but what about 1501545600? How do we know that?" It's an epoch timestamp. Google 'epoch converter', copy-paste that number in, convert to UTC, and you'll see it is correct for what the comment says it is.
The '&&' at the end of the line means 'and'. So in this case, 'if the mean age of the past few blocks is greater than or equal to and ...'
You can see proof of this claim in the tests written in src/test/versionbits_tests.cpp lines 277-281. line 277 creates an 'old format' block, then (line 279) checks that the ComputeBlockVersion function works, then verifies that the bitwise-and function returns TOP_BITS, as expected.
If you are concerned that more might be needed to reject a block, simply view src/validation.cpp on line 1892 and see that standard bitcoin Core code rejects blocks in the same way as the SEGWIT patch does.
"So wait, what is the total requirement to reject a block again?"
  1. If the mean age of the past few blocks is greater than or equal to AND the mean age of the past few blocks is less than or equal to AND the previous block did not show that Segwit was in 'active' state:
  2. If all of the conditions in step 1 are met AND the block either does not support BIP9 messaging, or does not signal support for SEGWIT
  3. Then it will be rejected.
"So wait, what happens after the first segregated witness block pops across the network? Hasn't that already happened?" No. Blocks that support segwit have come across the network, but in order for IsWitnessEnabled to return 'true', the SEGWIT state would need to switch to 'active' (see BIP9 spec), which is the final state of any proposal, and the point at which the setting is considered an accepted part of the blockchain.

Conclusions

So, you see, no muss, no fuss. The day-1 bug where the logic was backwards has been fixed. There is nothing to fear. Feel free to ask questions and I'll explain them over the next few hours/days as I am able. I'll try to talk to your level if I can. I like teaching in general and abhor ignorance in all its forms. Understand: ignorance strictly means 'not knowing', rather than the typical 'negative' connotation it gets in English speaking society. I would like everyone to realize just how simple this UASF patch is and that the FUD surrounding it not being 'verified' is absolutely a bad joke.
edit: Logic fix thanks to Phil. Like shaolinfry, I had my negated logic backwards. Oops.
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